Also, the soul has no mode without the body and therefore the body is called the mode (Prakaram) of the soul. “Anena Jeeveenaatmana Anupravisya Naama RUpe Vaakaravaani”. Monism or Monotheism? After creating them, the Brahman entered into all the created entities as “Antaryaami – Antaraatma”. The verse of the Veda “Tat Tvam Asi” is understood clearly using the concept of “Saamaanaadhikaranyam” as follows: The term “Tat” (that) denotes the Brahman on the grounds of its attributes/modes namely “being the only cause of the universe”, “having infinite divine characteristics”, “untouched by all impurities”. In a similar vein, Lord Krishna also mentions the Kosmos as but in a corner of His “body” in Sri Bhagavad Gita verse 11.7. Credit: A Vedic Vidwān (Scholar) in Srirangam, India. The Brahman controls all these chit and achit entities and their creation is purely dependent on Brahman. “Antha: pravishta saastha janaanaam sarvaatma” states that the Paramaatman (Brahman) has entered into all the souls-jeevaatmans. The personal interpretations of these Sruthi Vaakyaas given by many people like “Adi Sankara”, “Madhwaa” will also be discussed for better understanding of Visistaadvaita and to understand that Visistaadvaita is the only purport of Prasthaana Traya, logical, practical and the ultimate philosophy. In Exodus 3, verses 13 and 14, God gives Moses His name, identifying himself as the God of Israel: Moses said to God, “Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ Then what shall I tell them?”, God said to Moses, “I am who I am. The “Sat” became many, as it wished. Our problem is that monism is an absolute statement, despite navel-gazing attempts to explain it otherwise, that reality is ultimately one. Of these two birds, one bird eats the fruits of the tree, which are ripe. In order to invoke his interest regarding the Brahman, Uddalaka questioned Swetaketu as follows: “Utha tamaadesam apraakshya: yenaasrutam srutham bhavathi amatham matham avignyaatham vignyaatham” – “O son! Similarly the “Ghata:” term denotes the same entity (Pot) on the ground of the entity’s mode of being narrow-necked with broad spherical body. When nirguṇa is used, it’s meant to say that Brahman doesn’t have material attributes, not that Brahman doesn’t have auspicious spiritual Guṇas (attributes). Advaitis (Monists) contend that this world and all the experiences are an illusion and due to Avidya (ignorance) of the self being Brahman (God) itself. Republics and democracy or less absolute monarchy tend to be polytheistic because their leaders need to be reminded that they too can be toppled. The “Sat” wished again – “SOyam Devataykshatha Hanthaaham Imaa: Tisra: Devataa: Anena JevEna Aatmanaa Anupravisya Nama Roope iVyaakaravaaNi” that is the Sat wished “by having the representative divinities of Tejas (fire/light), Ap (Water) and Annam (Prutvi-matter) as Sareeram (body/mode), I enter into them as soul and give manifold names and forms to them”. Nor can the soul be a part of Brahman if we take ‘part’ to mean a piece (khanda); for Brahman does not admit of being divided into pieces, and moreover, the difficulties connected with the former interpretation would present themselves here also. Yet we find all the different schools of thought in the Upanishads. Up to this, the Upanishad has stated the following: Thus the Ghataka Sruthi does the synthesis of all the Bheda and Abheda sruthies and establishes that the Brahman is the soul of all chit and achit entities and the entire chit and achit entities are the body of Brahman. is in the Subaalopanishad of Veda. The specific definition is that... ...various things or kinds of things...in the world are somehow reducible to, derivable from, or [explained] in terms of one thing (substantival monism) or one kind of thing (attributive monism). Uddalaka therefore wanted him to get knowledge about the Brahman. “Bhoktha Bhogyam Prerithaaram cha mathva sarvam proktham trividham brahma ethat”. “Pradhaana Kshetragjnya pathir guNesha:” means that Iswara is the Lord of Achit and Chit and Iswara is with divine qualities namely Power, Strength, Lordship, Firmness, Knowledge and Glory which are beyond the reach of all words and sense organs. The Highest Self is Nārāyaṇa.”. Shreeman Nigamaantha Maha Desika defines the same as “Asesha Chit-Achit Prakaaram Brahmaikameva Tatvam”. From this verse, it is made clear by the Veda that both the Jeevaatman and the Paramaatman (Brahman-Vishnu/Narayana) are present in the same body. Sri Rāmānujācharya explains what Shiva means when specified in certain upanishad texts, in His work, Vedārtha Sangraha in paragraphs 133 to 139. Also please see their note to the reader. The ‘but’ discards the objection. Shreeman Narayanan is the only God (Brahman) and He is the Antaryaami-Antaraatma of all the entities”. Monotheism is the belief in one god. So, "monotheism" literally means "one god." Log in here. Animism and Polytheism 2. Monism or Monotheism? Monism: Defined as the view that reality is a unified whole and that all existing things can be ascribed to, or described by, a single concept or system.It is the doctrine that mind and matter are reducible to the same ultimate substance or principle of being. Monism is not "plurism" or "dualism. Monism stands in contrast with both dualism, the idea that all things can be reduced to two substances (good and evil), and pluralism, the idea that there are multiple substances, realities, or gods. What do most world religions have in common? Monism holds that everything in the universe is really part of one substance or one nature. Inasmuch therefore as the very seats of enjoyment are unstable, subject to decay, the joys themselves that are experienced there must terminate. The Veda is therefore consistent in imparting knowledge regarding Brahman. The term “Tvam” (you) denotes the same Brahman on the grounds of it having the Jeevaatman (Chit, you) as his attribute/mode. '[8]), Sat, Brahman, Ātman and other such words descriptive of the cause of the world are general terms of varying degrees of denotation or extension. Do you know that “Aadesa”, by knowing which all things which were not heard become heard (known), all that which were not contemplated become contemplated and all unknown becomes known?”, Swethaketu should have got shocked on being questioned like this and doubted the question’s logic itself. Veda also explains that Brahman has innumerable auspicious spiritual Guṇas (attributes). Uddalaka addressed his son, “Swetaketo! punar janma na vidyate, ‘All regions, Arjuna! At the center of Christianity and Judaism, monotheism is exercised in the worship of God (the Father), who is all-powerful, has created the entire universe and is still involved with His creation today. “Prutak Aatmaanam Preritaaram cha mathva jushtasthathastenaamrutavamethi” means that the Jeevaatman (spirit soul) who comprehends and does Bhakthi that he is different from Brahman, who rules him, becomes blessed by Brahman’s grace and by this knowledge of Bhedam (difference between Jeevaatman and Brahman), attains liberation (Moksha). If the term Monism is employed in place of Monotheism, it may, of course, mean Theism, which is a monotheistic doctrine, or it may mean Pantheism, which is opposed to theism. A. Also, the statement “Of Rudras I am Śankara” in Sri Bhagavad Gita verse 10.23 is in the context of the verse 10.19 which simply points out “the prominent expression of Sri Krishna’s glory among various classes” with all entities standing in the relation of body to Him (the Soul); NOT that He is a direct incarnation in the prominent entities mentioned in various classes mentioned in the verses following verse 10.19. Therefore the three do not contradict but fulfil. We say the latter is only one of three steps. The Brahman (Sat) is therefore declared as the “Cause” (Kaaranam) of the universe. I hope you are encouraged and intrigued in your search for Truth and Goodness! Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence. The Brahman is untouched by the impurities of all chit and achit entities and the Brahman is with divine auspicious qualities. Monotheism vs. Polytheism . What are the positive effects of religion? This brings out the fact that Shreeman Narayana Para Brahman is the only material cause and efficient cause of the universe. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! On the other hand the Brahman just witnesses it and being untouched by such impurities shines with his natural greatness which is immeasurable. As the Brahman is the soul of the entire universe, the Brahman himself is denoted as the universe. Jack Steele Paragraph 4 (Monotheism VS. Polytheism): The last theme explored is the belief in one god, Monotheism, rather than many, Polytheism. The changes in his “Roopam” does not in any way contradict “Satyam-Ignyaanam-Anantam”. Between these two terms, we can identify a number of differences. And hence all changes undergone by the wave are indeed those of the ocean. The Veda has ascertained that the Jeevaatman and the Paramaatman are always present together inseparably and also categorically ascertains the differences between the Jeevaatman and the Paramaatman. (Similarly) You (Swethaketu) are also the same Brahman (as you (a Jeevaatman) are also pervaded by the same Brahman and you are having the Brahman as your Soul (aatma) and you are the body/mode of the same Brahman). We’ve discounted annual subscriptions by 50% for our End-of-Year sale—Join Now! This is the most precise definition of our Siddhaantham. Sri  Śaṇkarā mentions in his commentary for Vedanta Sutra 2.2.46: “we do not intend to controvert the doctrine that Nârâyana, who is higher than the Undeveloped, who is the highest Self, and the Self of all, reveals himself by dividing himself in multiple ways”. Therefore, the Brahman is “Satyam-Ignyaanam-Anantam” only, even though the Brahman is the UpAdAna kAraNam. The readers are requested to devote time more and concentrate more on these lessons as the concepts are going to be explained in detail with intricacies.]. It is derived in Sanskrit as “Aadichyate Anena Ithi Aadesa:”. Not ready for distribution! from Brahmā’s home downward, are of the nature, from which there is return. "Theism" is also from the Greek. Monotheism is a metaphysical duality by definition - in that it isolates a single god and everything else in the universe: as disparate entities. Brahma Sutra: II-3-42: ‘Amśo nānā-vyapadeśatvāt’ specifies that jīvas (souls) are amśas (i.e., a part) of Brahman. They are all, however, intended only to signify what is connoted by Nārāyaṇa, a particular term. mām upetya tu kaunteya Further the Sat Vidyaa continues as follows “Sath Moolaa: Somya Imaa: Prajaa:” meaning the Brahman is the cause for all these chit tatvas (not only achit tatvas) also. Monism is the metaphysical view that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. We say the latter is only one of three steps. Here the Veda has clearly declared that the Iswara is different from the Jeevaatmans as it says “That One Aatman who is different from all other Aatmans because of His unparalleled and unsurpassed supreme qualities that are unique to him”. Among the inumerable Aatmans who have knowledge, there exists an Aatman who is having knowledge, who is distinguished from all the Aatmans as He grants and fulfills the wishes of all the other Aatmans. The next sutra Brahma Sutra: II-3-44: ‘Api smaryate’, refers to Sri Bhagavad Gita verse 15.7 where Lord Krishna explains that Jivas (athmas, souls) are His amśa, in the context of the preceding Bhagavad Gita verses. Therefore this verse also ascertains the difference between chit, achit and Iswara. “iGnyaagnyow iDvaavajaaveesaaneesow” means that there are two entities which are eternal of which one is the Iswara and the other is Jeevaatman which is different from Iswara. The Brahman who had subtle chit and achit as his “Roopam/Sareeram” is the same Brahman who is having expanded chit and achit as his “Roopam/Sareeram”. precludes re-birth evermore.’. punar āvartino ’rjuna The Upanishads had always to be taken, else there would be no basis. Bhakti vs Surrender vs Savior’s Grace Books Caste in Hinduism Contact Equality in Srivaishnavam Five Truths Idolatry or Deity? But amśa actually means “part”. Existence of Souls or Spirits There is a plurality of spirits Dreams clearly show the division of body and soul Animals, plants, inanimate objects have souls Animals: relatives, abodes of dead ancestors, sources of power, knowledge and influence Trees, plants, water, … Monotheism vs. Polytheism Philosophers and scholars debate the merits of monotheism and polytheism. Note 958 in Vol III of Sri Bhashya translation by Sri M. Rangacharya and Sri M.B.Varadaraja Aiyangar. That is different words possessing different grounds of meanings denoting a single entity is what is called “Saamaanaadhikaranyam”. This brings out the ultimate supremacy of Shreeman Narayana Para Brahman who is Akila Heya Pratyaneeka: and Ananta Kalyaana Gunaakara: “Visistayoho Advaitam” means – The Brahman having the subtle (sukshma) chit and achit entities as his Saareeram/Prakaaram/Viseshanam (body/mode/attribute) before creation is the same Brahman having the expanded (stUla) chit and achit entities as his Saareeram/Prakaaram/Viseshanam (body/mode/attribute) after creation. “Vaacha-Aarambhanam Vikaaro Namadheyam mruthikethyeva satyam”. These beliefs are supported in the Scripture of the Old Testament of the Bible. Therefore the Sareera-Aatma Bhaavam (Body-Soul relationship) between the Universe and the Brahman is clearly told by the verse “Tat Tvam Asi”. From the above discussion and literal meaning of the verses, the Veda appears to have mutually contradicting statements. The mind-body problem is an important issue in neurophilosophy, with regards to the relation between the mind and the body. The verse “Tat Tvam Asi” leads to a debate as the Advaitins tell their own personal idea as its meaning, which is different from the “Sareera-Aatma” (body/soul) bhaavam as discussed above. Instead, it is a metaphysical way of looking at the world. On seeing his son, Uddalaka understood that his son is yet to know the Brahman. It involves the eternal question of whether the mind, brain and soul are one and the same or are distinct and separate. —The Upanishads [Vedānta] not being in a systematised form, it was easy for philosophers to take up texts when they liked to form a system. Regards to the Dvaita ( dualism ) hence those analysing a thing of kind... Fixes and additions ” rules out independent existence of a liberated Jiva-atma into Brahman Sat... 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