in the Theravada Buddhist Tradition of Ajahn Chah This Forest Sangha website integrates the two previously separate sites: www.forestsangha.org and www.forestsanghapublications.org. - Theravada Buddhism in America by Wendy Cadge - Buddhism in the United States Wiki Notes: [1] . Heartwood: The First Generation of Theravada Buddhism in America (Morality and Society Series) (English Edition) eBook: Cadge, Wendy: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. v. Chr. Theravāda is one of the first Buddhist schools to commit its complete Canon to writing. Minnesota Zen Meditation Center (MZMC) The Minnesota Zen Meditation Center is located in the East Lake neighborhood of Southwest Minneapolis, located … Apart from the growth of organizations led and attended by Asian and American Buddhist practitioners, Asian temples and largely white meditation centers also continued to grow into the decade. An early challenge came from Rev. In 1967 the Vihara purchased a building at 5017 16th Street NW from the government of Thailand for a reduced price, where people continue to meet today. YouTube, Buddhist Sangha Council of Southern California. These beliefs spread from the west coast across the country. In 1991 he began to help with the leadership of Metta Forest Monastery, and in 1993 he became the abbot or head monk of the temple. This is largely due to the popularity and visibility of the current Dalai Lama. In 1972, Ven. Why did he live in the forest? eingeführt worden, und zwar unter dem Patronat des damaligen Herrschers, König Devanampiyatissa (250-210 v. Jinaratana (preceptor), Ven. Buddhism in America is incredibly varied with belief systems that take their root from all across Asia. A group of lay supporters in California organized themselves into the Sanghapala Foundation, and in 1995 Ajahn Amaro and three other monks spent the three-month rain retreats in tents at Bell Springs Hermitage north of San Francisco. Bhante Gunaratana was the head monk at the Washington Buddhist Vihara when he established the Bhavana Society, and in 1988 he left the Vihara to become the society’s president. Ven. | A. Astes / Alamy Stock Photo Buddhism first came to North American shores when Chinese immigrants arrived in the mid-19th century. American Buddhism shares many commonalities with Asian Buddhism, but it also has its own distinctive flair. The best known type of Theravada is called Vipassana. This ordination included the largest ever gathering of monastics from Theravada Buddhist countries in the United States, twenty-eight monks and nuns. Announcements. While researchers do not know when these parallel congregations began or how numerous they are across the country, Numrich’s research showed that in the 1990s the demographics of Theravada Buddhism in America were not simply a matter of groups of Asians and white Americans practicing at geographic, cultural, and social distances from one another. As waves of Asian immigrants came to America in the late 1800s, Americans began to get exposure to Buddhist beliefs. Community service and other forms of social assistance have a strong and deep tradition in American Buddhism. Just before Ven. In Asia it is practiced widely in Thailand, Laos, Burma, Sri Lanka, and Cambodia. This worldwide community of monasteries grew out of the first generation of Western disciples of Venerable Ajahn … In 1978 he began to establish Buddhist temples in refugee camps and in 1981 came to the United States to head the Cambodian Buddhist community in Rhode Island, which became the center for establishing Buddhist temples in the Cambodian refugee community around the world. In Thailand and some other Asian countries, young men are temporarily ordained for a few weeks or months as a rite of passage on their way to adulthood. Das Vihara war für englischsprachige Personen zugänglich, wobei die Vipassana-Meditation Teil seiner Aktivitäten war. The aim of this article is to explain how the beginning of Buddhism and evaluation in America. Women and minorities are far more represented in American Buddhism. “There is an ease of communication between white monks and Thai kids,” Ajahn Amaro observes. The ceremonies and services tend to be shorter than they are in the East. This is when Buddhism really began to spread across the globe in earnest. This is appealing to Americans who live in a culture where the individual is of utmost importance. Ajahn Sumedho, the most senior monk in the Ajahn Chah lineage in the West, had become friends with the Chinese Mahayana monk Ven. American Buddhism is more inclusive and democratic. He arrived carrying a Buddha statue and relic of the Buddha, and in December 1966 the Vihara held its first meeting at the All Souls Unitarian Church on 16th Street NW. Der direkte Einfluss … Some white American-born people had probably started to attend meditation classes at Asian temples across the country, although this is difficult to demonstrate empirically. In recent years American Buddhism has been featured as a major story on ABC television news, National Public Radio, and in other national media. Finally, we will touch on the basic practices commonly seen in American Buddhism. It’s not like friction. For many in America, this is the most visible form of Buddhism. Like all forms of Buddhism, American Buddhism has its own distinct flavor. These two are the most commonly practiced schools of American Buddhism. Ananda Mangala Thera, a Sri Lankan monk who had been living in Singapore, visited Los Angeles and was asked by a handful of Sri Lankan families to start a Buddhist society. A three-month retreat, modeled after the three-month rain retreat taken by monastics in Southeast Asia, also took place every fall from September through December. Bope Vinitha, had recently returned to Sri Lanka after two years of study at Harvard University and was asked to return to the States to direct the temple in Washington. Additionally, many masters of some of the biggest branches of Buddhism have immigrated to America. The combination of immigration and conversion that led Buddhism in general to grow so dramatically in the twentieth century has led many researchers to assert that there is not one but two Buddhisms in America—the Buddhism of immigrants and the Buddhism of converts. However, in some Latin American countries, there is another trend related to Theravada Buddhism, which is in tune with the general evolution of Western Buddhism in the last decades: the growing interest in contemplation. The Los Angeles Buddhist Vihara was established in the early 70’s. During their time in the States, the three Burmese monks visited a Burmese community in the San Francisco Bay area. Much of the chanting and ritual at Asian temples is conducted in Pali, the scriptural language of Theravada Buddhism. ©2005, 278 pages, 19 halftones, 3 figures, 3 tables At IMS, an executive director was appointed in 1990, and the center became more professionally organized and operated. Born in 1864 in Sri Lanka (then Ceylon), Don David Hewavitharne became a celibate layman and adopted the title Anagarika Dharmapala, meaning “homeless one,” “guardian of the Dharma.” Speaking tours, conferences, and publications from Eastern and Western practitioners proliferated. With them, they brought their varied forms of Buddhist belief systems. U Silananda, Indian lay teachers Anagarika Munindra and Dipa Ma, and the Tibetan leader the Dalai Lama visited IMS in the late 1970s and 1980s, and the teachers at IMS returned to Asia to study with their teachers there. Thai forest monk Ajahn Chah, Burmese monks Ven. There are practicing Buddhists in every country on the globe. Zen Buddhism is a Japanese tradition that came to America during one of the early waves of Asian immigration. Chicago Manual of Style Number of Thai temples in the United States, 1970-2000. Theravada Teachings. Heartwood will add tremendously to our understanding of the Buddhist tradition in America.”—Charles Prebish, Penn State University. Since that time, with subsequent waves of immigration, a diverse array of forms of Buddhism have made it to the United States. For millions of Americans, Buddhism is a comforting and fulfilling set of spiritual beliefs. “In this tradition we take a very conservative approach,” Luke Matthews, the current manager of the Dhamma Dhara Vipassana Meditation center explained, “feeling that what was already given was so good and has worked in so many cultures for so many centuries. This fascinating ethnography opens a window onto two communities of Theravada Buddhists in contemporary America: one outside Philadelphia that is composed largely of Thai immigrants and one outside Boston that consists mainly of white converts. Though Buddhism started in the East, it did not stay in the East. Hsuan Hua passed away, he gifted the sangha of Ajahn Sumedho with 120 acres of wooded land near the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. The Council of Thai Bhikkhus, an umbrella organization designed to oversee all of the Thai temples in the United States, was started in 1977. Theravada Buddhist Society of America 17450 Cabrillo Hwy S Half Moon Bay CA 94019. Within the Theravada branch, cultural differences have given rise to many different kinds of Buddhism, thus Sri Lankan Theravada differs from other cultural Theravada, such as … Several years after his teacher’s death, Thanissaro Bhikkhu returned to the United States. Reflecting on the importance of a place like the Bhavana Society in an interview in Tricycle, a Buddhist magazine, Bhante Gunaratana said, “If you do not preserve the form of Theravada Buddhism, the original form, eventually people won’t even know what it is.” Sri Lankans and Americans sit on the board of directors, and Asians and American-born people both support the center financially. Theravada is one of the three main branches of Buddhism. With these belief systems also came the teachings of the Buddha. The Oldest School of Buddhism. “Thera” heißt in der alten indischen Sprache Pali “Alt”, “Vada” Lehre. Dhammaratana (teacher), Ven. They then brought this information to the west and wrote detailed accounts. While most lay people do not understand Pali, the language sounds familiar enough to many that if they attend a temple where they do not speak the vernacular language, the chanting and ceremony still often sound familiar. A Buddhist community in the tradition of Ajahn Chah, Ajahn Sumedho and Amaravati Buddhist Monastery. It was at the Naropa Institute in the summer of 1974 that Jack Kornfield met Joseph Goldstein and the two formed a relationship that shaped much of the way Theravada Buddhism was taught to white people in the United States for the next decade. The first Theravada temple was erected in the 1960s. Der Theravada-Buddhismus und seine lange Geschichte sind im Rahmen dieser Vortragsreihe schon mehrmals angesprochen worden. We left much of the Eastern culture, ritual, and ceremony also behind in Asia…we felt that for Americans it was an unnecessary barrier. While numerous white American-born men had become monks in Southeast Asia in the 1960s and 1970s, the first Theravada Buddhist higher ordination took place on United States soil in 1979 at Wat Thai Los Angeles. The tradition of Buddhism practiced in Cambodia – a small country embedded in the Indochina Peninsula and bordered by Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam – is a rich and longstanding one. of Chicago $22.50 (268p) ISBN 978-0-226-08900-3. By the end of the decade, funds were being raised, programs were being held elsewhere around San Francisco, and the number of small meditation groups that had grown out of existing programs had skyrocketed. Sri Lankans and other Asians tend to come for devotional services and ceremonies, while white Americans come for meditation sessions and sutta study classes. These western minds were influenced by the teachings of the Buddha and his followers. Theravada is one of the three main branches of Buddhism. The three largest categories are Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. This early tendency had no equivalent in Latin America, where immigrants from East Asia introduced Buddhism and scholars of Pali are rare even today. Jack Kornfield is the primary founder of Spirit Rock. “It became clear that there were a lot of Dharma students out there looking for guidance and there weren’t enough teachers to go around,” Baraz explained. American Buddhism has created new roles for women in the Buddhist tradition. While the first Theravada Buddhist organizations founded largely by Asians and white Americans had little contact with one another, they occasionally shared teachers and influenced each other in unexpected ways. Trancendentalists and others were open to the ideas of Buddhism and also contributed to the spread of these ideas. Das Wort Theravada bedeutet wörtlich übersetzt “die Lehre der Älteren”. Phrakhru Vajirathammasophon of Wat Vajirathamsathit in Thailand was invited to Los Angeles to teach and perform Buddhist ceremonies. Early Christian theologians brought back much knowledge of the Buddhist faith, particularly the Jesuits. This chapter traces the history and development of Theravada Buddhism in America from 1966 to the present. A Thai college student born in the United States, for example, approached Ajahn Amaro to talk about whether or not to live with her boyfriend, an issue she said she could never bring up with her first-generation parents. I would say let’s adapt the culture and keep this as we had it.” In addition to the center in Shelburne Falls, the California center called Dhamma Mahavana was started by students of Goenka in 1983. Unfortunately Baumann says nothing about how he arrived at them. Financial and practical support from Thais, Laotians, and Americans has been central to the development of the temple. Ryo Imamura, a Jodo Shinshu Buddhist priest, in a letter to Tricycle: The Buddhist Review in 1992. They saw it as a real, fully-fledged faith and belief system. After meeting at the Naropa Institute in 1974, Jack Kornfield and Joseph Goldstein began to teach meditation retreats around the country, and with Sharon Salzberg and Jacqueline Schwartz they started a meditation center for teacher and self-led meditation retreats. The temple called Wat Buddhikarana that currently serves Cambodian Buddhists in the Washington, D.C., area was first organized in 1978 when people began worshiping together in converted houses. Word of the temple spread in an organic way, Ajahn Amaro says, and now there is “a lot of ease between the two groups [Asian and American]. They incorporated as the Sri Lankan–America Buddha Dhamma Society in 1975 and a few years later began to collect funds to support a temple. The Theravada, literally “The Way of the Elders,” is the school of Buddhism most prominent today in the countries of Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka. When Asians and Americans are both at the Bhavana Society, a certain diplomacy is required to negotiate their activities. He was joined by another Sri Lankan monk, Ven. While IMS is based around practice, Sharon Salzberg described the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies as helping people understand their connections to Asia. Immigrant Buddhism simply refers to the varied beliefs that were brought to America by the first Asian immigrants. I think now as we start this place we have a greater sense of history and of planting seeds with this center that will be long enduring and have a very great impact on the transmission of those teachings to this country.” With the initial encouragement of the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies, John Bullitt started Access to Insight in the early 1990s, a Web site that houses more than seven hundred suttas and several hundred articles and books about Theravada Buddhism. Bhante Gunaratana came to the United States from Sri Lanka in 1968 to help lead the Washington Buddhist Vihara in Washington, D.C. There are also Chinese and Vietnamese variants on the Zen tradition. Born in 1864 in Sri Lanka (then Ceylon), Don David Hewavitharne became a celibate layman and adopted the title Anagarika Dharmapala, meaning “homeless one,” “guardian of the Dharma.” Heavily influenced by Henry Steel Olcott (1832–1907) and Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831–1891), Theosophists who first visited India and Ceylon from America in 1878 and 1880, Dharmapala spent his life spreading Buddhism around the world. The Lao Buddhist Association purchased a house and one-acre lot in 1980 where services were held, but problems with zoning regulations led the temple to relocate several years later. University of Chicago “There were also a lot of very experienced practitioners who had touched some real wisdom and who were dedicated to serving the Dharma. There were two major waves of Asian immigration. Ajahn Amaro was born as Jeremy Horner and after graduating from university went to Thailand, where he began to study at Wat Pah Nanachat, a forest monastery for Western students started by Thai forest teacher Ajahn Chah. Er führt seinen Ursprung auf jene Mönchsgemeinde zurück, die zu den ersten Anhängern des Buddha gehörte. The center practices a fluid and social-justice oriented form of Theravada Buddhism. In the late 1970s, the Khmer Rouge regime systematically killed Buddhist monks throughout their reign of terror in Cambodia, and a few of the surviving monks arrived in the United States and were involved in the construction of early temples. It seemed like a good fit to train some of those people to help serve their communities.” Spirit Rock held retreats and programs for gay men and lesbians, people of color, families, and youth throughout the 1990s. A similar pattern was evident at Dharma Vijaya. Baumann's figures are cited as authoritative by Queen in his introduction to American Buddhism (xv), by Prebish in his Luminous Passage (57 and 241), and by Seager in his Buddhism in America (11). Bibliovault “Theravada Buddhism has never gotten proper attention in the literature devoted to Buddhism in the West. Priests from the Zen tradition were sent to America to provide services to the small immigrant communities now there. Buddhism had already spread across Asia and had touched almost every country in the region. He has described dhamma in the United States as something like the game of telephone: “Things get passed from one generation to the next until they are garbled beyond recognition.” In part to combat this tendency, he has translated many of the talks and teachings given by monks in the Thai forest tradition into English and distributed them for free across the country. As it gained adherents, the teachings continued to evolve and flourish in diverse forms. Quite apart from white Theravada Buddhist practitioners, groups that eventually founded the first Laotian and Cambodian temples in the United States were also started between 1978 and 1980 in the Washington, D.C., area. After one failed attempt at raising money, they purchased thirteen acres in West Virginia in May 1984, and a few months later chanted suttas on the land, made speeches, and expressed appreciation to the people whose donations enabled them to purchase the property. In January 2001 the Vihara housed four monks, two from Sri Lanka, one from Nepal, and one white American ordained in San Francisco according to the Burmese tradition. The Bhavana Society, a Theravada community located in the foothills of rural West Virginia, is dedicated to preserving the world’s oldest surviving school of Buddhism, yet its approach to spiritual outreach––the society has Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Linkedin pages, and its quarterly newsletter features a Q&A entitled “Ask Bhante G”––is decidedly modern. Theravada (pronounced — more or less — “terra-VAH-dah”), the “Doctrine of the Elders,” is the school of Buddhism that draws its scriptural inspiration from the Tipitaka, or Pali canon, which scholars generally agree contains the earliest surviving record of the Buddha’s teachings. Tom West, Matthew Flickstein, Shibaya, and Misha Cowman were ordained. The number of meditation groups across the country grew during the 1990s, as evident in the number of sitting groups listed in Inquiring Mind, the number of people attending retreats at IMS, and Don Morreale’s “unscientific study” of Buddhist America. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ordained two Americans in the 1990s, and Bhante Gunaratana continued to ordain people in the 1990s. Its monastic practitioners regarded the Buddha as a great sage but no deity. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves. This means that less emphasis and reverence are given to the masters in American Buddhism. Menu & Reservations Make Reservations . Bekanntlich hat er sich in Sri Lanka und auf dem südostasiatischen Festland bis heute erhalten. Abhayagiri Monastery is the first monastery in the United States to be established by followers of Ajahn Chah, a respected Buddhist master of the ancient Thai Forest Tradition of Theravada Buddhism. There are some common beliefs shared across all sects, but there are also differences. Bhante Gunaratana asked him to stay on, and in August 1987 Bhante Gunaratana led the first meditation course on the land, attended by seventeen people. While a higher Theravada ordination took place on American soil at Wat Thai L.A. in 1979, one of the early samanera ordinations occurred at the Bhavana Society in 1989. In 1984 these sixteen groups met in eight states, while in 1989 the ninety groups listed met in thirty-two states. Many who took to the teachings and practices of Theravada set up schools and areas for practice around the country. Theravada (pronounced more or less \"terra-VAH-dah\"), the \"Doctrine of the Elders,\" is the school of Buddhism that draws its scriptural inspiration from the Tipitaka, or Pali canon, which scholars generally agree contains the earliest surviving record of the Buddha's teachings. There are many reasons that the Buddhist teachings appeal to people in America. This article examines how organizational context shapes the way gender is socially constructed in two non-Judeo-Christian religious organizations in the United States, one Theravada Buddhist organization founded by immigrants and one started by converts. Theravada Buddhist Society of America The Theravada Buddhist Society of America (TBSA) was founded in 1980 to support the sasana activities in general and the Dhammananda Vihara activities in particular. During silent retreats some visitors may show up who want to follow some particular custom from their home country. The ceremony lasted for two and a half hours, and these were the first of twelve or thirteen people that Bhante Gunaratana has ordained over the last twelve years in the United States. In Asia it is practiced widely in Thailand, Laos, Burma, Sri Lanka, and Cambodia. Both of these centers were initially attended largely by white people with an interest in vipassana meditation. It is sometimes called Southern Buddhism and is one of the largest subdivisions of Buddhism. The Dalai Lama practices the Gelug, so it is the most well known of the forms of Tibetan Buddhism in the United States. While the Asian temples were formally led by Asian monks, lay people were integral to their founding and maintenance. It is what most will think of when thinking about Buddhism. That winter, magazine founder and editor Helen Tworkov had written that “The spokespeople for Buddhism in America have been, almost exclusively, educated members of the white middle class. Not even 30 years after the first Buddhists arrived on the shores of California, there were already 8 major temples in just the Bay Area. Buddhist tradition states that the Buddha’s teachings have truly arrived in a new country when sons and daughters of good families in the country join the monastic order. A group of lay people in a given city who were interested in building a temple first formed a committee to consider the issues involved. In 1973, Jack Kornfield met Tibetan teacher Chogyam Trungpa at a party in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Trungpa invited him to come to Boulder, Colorado, in the summer of 1974 to teach at a new school he was starting, the Naropa Institute. Jhdt n. Chr. "School of the Elders") is the most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest existing school. First popularized for lay people in Burma, this form of meditation emphasizes being aware and present with physical and mental experiences as they are happening so as to see things clearly as they are. Der Theravāda (Pali: Schule der Ältesten) ist die älteste noch existierende Schultradition des Buddhismus. The tenets of not doing harm and only doing good really manifest in this area. American Buddhist women have been active in movements to revive the ordination lineages of Buddhist nuns in the Theravada and Vajrayana traditions. Theravada is sometimes identified as "Hinayana" (the "Lesser Vehicle"), in contradistinction to "Mahayana" (the "Greater Vehicle"), which is usually a synonym for Tibetan Buddhism, Zen, Ch'an, and other expressions of Northern Buddhism. In his book OLD WISDOM IN THE NEW WORLD: AMERICANIZATION IN TWO IMMIGRANT THERAVADA BUDDHIST TEMPLES, Paul D. Numrich describes a Thai temple in Chicago and a Sri Lankan temple in Los Angeles where "parallel congregations" of Asian and non-Asian Buddhists gather in the same place under the guidance of the same monks, though at different times to practice different rituals. Meditation plays a role in this form of Buddhism. Mahâyâna - Großes Fahrzeug . The reach of Theravada Buddhist meditation groups also widened in the 1980s. In 1986, responsibility for administrative, policy, and fiscal matters related to IMS was placed in the hands of nine board members selected from the community. This increased exposure of the west to east (and vice versa) allowed the tenets of Buddhism to spread. Buddhism Comes to America. Most had little teaching experience and tried to transplant what they had learned in Asia to the United States with an emphasis on preserving the “dhamma,” or teachings of the Buddha. The U.S. presents a strikingly new and different environment for Buddhists, leading to a unique history and a continuing process of development as Buddhism and America come to grips with each other. Chan in Everyday Practice (inactive) Dakini As Art (inactive) Dhamma Well (inactive) Dharma Eye (inactive) Dharma Project of the Month (inactive) Lily Pad Sutra (inactive) Mindful Living (inactive) On the Vajra Footpath (inactive) School of Happiness (inactive) Search in News Category: Archive. 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