But is he just a legend or did he really exist? It incorporates fitness tracking, health-oriented capabilities, and wireless telecommunication, and integrates with iOS and other Apple products and services.. Trees and fruit are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means. A wide range of pests and diseases can affect the plant. [47], There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. Arctic Apples, a non-browning group of apples introduced to the United States market in 2019, have been genetically modified to silence the expression of polyphenol oxidase, thereby delaying a browning effect and improving apple eating quality. However, more than with most perennial fruits, apples must be propagated asexually to obtain the sweetness and other desirable characteristics of the parent. [59], Most new apple cultivars originate as seedlings, which either arise by chance or are bred by deliberately crossing cultivars with promising characteristics. [65], Crops ripen at different times of the year according to the cultivar. [5], Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves and are produced on spurs and some long shoots. The central flower of the inflorescence is called the "king bloom"; it opens first and can develop a larger fruit.[5][6]. This prevents ethylene concentrations from rising to higher amounts and preventing ripening from occurring too quickly. [31], In Norse mythology, the goddess Iðunn is portrayed in the Prose Edda (written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson) as providing apples to the gods that give them eternal youthfulness. 44mm or 40mm case size . [7] The skin may also be wholly or partly russeted i.e. Some find them to have better flavor than modern cultivars,[54] but they may have other problems that make them commercially unviable—low yield, disease susceptibility, poor tolerance for storage or transport, or just being the "wrong" size. GPS . Swipe down and … Atalanta, also of Greek mythology, raced all her suitors in an attempt to avoid marriage. For the American technology company, see, Edible fruit of domesticated deciduous tree, Significance in European cultures and societies, "An Apple a Day: Old-Fashioned Proverbs and Why They Still Work", by Caroline Taggart; published 2009 by, apple clearwing moth (red-belted clearwing), Link to Full Nutrient Report of USDA Database entry, "Apple production in 2018; Crops/World Regions/Production Quantity", "Origin and meaning of "apple" by Online Etymology Dictionary", "New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties", "ScienceShot: The Secret History of the Domesticated Apple", "The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. It all started back in 1976, when college drop-outs Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak, along with their friend Ronald Wayne established a company named Apple Computer. Recently, double- and trihaploid individuals have been sequenced, yielding whole genome sequences of higher quality. To throw an apple at someone was to symbolically declare one's love; and similarly, to catch it was to symbolically show one's acceptance of that love. [79] The use of pesticides containing chemicals, such as sulfur, copper, microorganisms, viruses, clay powders, or plant extracts (pyrethrum, neem) has been approved by the EU Organic Standing Committee to improve organic yield and quality. Fast‑charge testing conducted with drained iPhone units. It is dedicated to bringing the best of personal computing to students, educators, professionals, and also the consumers by providing innocative hardware, software, and also the various internet applications offered online. The English scholar H. R. Ellis Davidson links apples to religious practices in Germanic paganism, from which Norse paganism developed. Davidson concludes that in the figure of Iðunn "we must have a dim reflection of an old symbol: that of the guardian goddess of the life-giving fruit of the other world. GPS + Cellular 1 8 7 4 6. That feature and others -- such as an improved floppy drive design and a low-cost hard drive that made data retrieval faster and more reliable -- helped Apple cultivate a reputation for innovation, which the company still enjoys today. iOS is best known for serving as the underlying software that allows iPhone users to interact with their phones using gestures such as swiping, tapping and pinching. During the flowering each season, apple growers often utilize pollinators to carry pollen. As the wave of settlement moved across North America, it was accompanied by the distribution of seedling apple varieties, perhaps by Indians and trappers, certainly by itinerants who became local legendary figures, the most prominent being Johnny Appleseed (John Chapman), a professional nurseryman who planted apple trees extensively in Ohio and Indiana. Many aphids crawl onto these tiny apples and puncture them causing dimpling of the fruit and normal incision of tiny apples. [48] Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock. Granny Smith. The word apple, formerly spelled æppel in Old English, is derived from the Proto-Germanic root *ap(a)laz, which could also mean fruit in general. Of the total world production, one-fourth goes for cider. Supports Family Setup 8 5 11 8 (GPS + Cellular models) [56], Because apples do not breed true when planted as seeds, although cuttings can take root and breed true, and may live for a century, grafting is usually used. Among the most serious disease problems are a bacterial disease called fireblight, and two fungal diseases: Gymnosporangium rust and black spot. Omissions? Rootstocks marked with an "MM" prefix are Malling-series cultivars later crossed with trees of 'Northern Spy' in Merton, England. Apple definition, the usually round, red or yellow, edible fruit of a small tree, Malus sylvestris, of the rose family. [46] Despite the proverb, there is no evidence that eating an apple daily has any significant health effects. )", "A high-density, multi-parental SNP genetic map on apple validates a new mapping approach for outcrossing species", "High-quality de novo assembly of the apple genome and methylome dynamics of early fruit development", "A high-quality apple genome assembly reveals the association of a retrotransposon and red fruit colour", "Genome re-sequencing reveals the history of apple and supports a two-stage model for fruit enlargement", "Efectos ambientales de la colonización española desde el río Maullín al archipiélago de Chiloé, sur de Chile", "Association between apple consumption and physician visits", "ECPGR Malus/Pyrus Working Group Members", "Crops & Gardening – Apples of Antiquity", "Polyploidy: From Evolution to Landscape Plant Improvement", 11th Metropolitan Tree Improvement Alliance (METRIA) Conference held in Gresham, Oregon, August 23–24, 2000, "Dwarf Rootstocks for Apple Trees in the Home Garden", "The Importance of Apple Rootstocks on Tree Growth, Yield, Fruit Quality, Leaf Nutrition, and Photosynthesis with an Emphasis on 'Fuji, An Assessment of Non-Apis Bees as Fruit and Vegetable Crop Pollinators in Southwest Virginia, "Refrigerated storage of perishable foods", "Puff the Magic Preservative: Lasting Crunch, but Less Scent", "Efficacy of tree trunk coating materials in the control of the apple clearwing, Synanthedon myopaeformis", "Nutrition Facts, Apples, raw, with skin [Includes USDA commodity food A343]. [18][19] Among other things, the availability of whole genome sequences has provided evidence that the wild ancestor of the cultivated apple most likely is Malus sieversii. Apples were eaten by the earliest Europeans. An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus domestica). [49] Different cultivars are available for temperate and subtropical climates. Apple juice or cider is also bottled. Apple iPhone: Touch and revel. [42] The origin of the popular identification with a fruit unknown in the Middle East in biblical times is found in confusion between the Latin words mālum (an apple) and mălum (an evil), each of which is normally written malum. As a result, in the story of Adam and Eve, the apple became a symbol for knowledge, immortality, temptation, the fall of man into sin, and sin itself. High and low heart rate notifications. Apple varieties that ripen during late summer are generally of poor quality for storage. The core, from stem to bottom, containing the seeds, is usually not eaten and is discarded. When cooked, some apple cultivars easily form a puree known as apple sauce. Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. Many commercial orchards pursue a program of chemical sprays to maintain high fruit quality, tree health, and high yields. Apples are eaten fresh or cooked in a variety of ways and are frequently used as a pastry filling, apple pie being perhaps the archetypal American dessert. The company produces consumer electronics, personal computers, and software. Apple, ( Malus domestica ), fruit of the domesticated tree Malus domestica (family Rosaceae), one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The apple is a pome (fleshy) fruit, in which the ripened ovary and surrounding tissue both become fleshy and edible. The Apple headquarters are located in Cupertino, CA, at 1-5 Infinite Loop. [79] A light coating of kaolin, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, also may help prevent apple sun scalding. Retina display. Apple Inc., is a multinational information technology corporation based in California, USA. Time-lapse video, filmed over seven days, showing the opening of several apple (. Apple Inc. Apple, Inc. engages in the design, manufacture, and sale of smartphones, personal computers, tablets, wearables and accessories, and other variety of related services. As late as the 17th century, the word also functioned as a generic term for all fruit other than berries but including nuts—such as the 14th century Middle English word appel of paradis, meaning a banana. Crisp and Very Sweet. Updates? It is a small network appliance and entertainment device that can receive digital data for visual and audio content such as music, video, video games, or the screen display of certain other devices, and play it on a connected television set or other video display.. Apple TV is an HDMI-compliant source device. The apple is a deciduous tree, generally standing 2 to 4.5 m (6 to 15 ft) tall in cultivation and up to 9 m (30 ft) in the wild. Apples can be consumed various ways: juice, raw in salads, baked in pies, cooked into sauces and spreads like apple butter, and other baked dishes. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/apple-fruit-and-tree, Science Kids - Fun Science and Technology for Kids - Apple Facts for Kids, Public Broadcasting Service - The Botany of Desire - Apple Sweetness, apple - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), apple - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). A few old cultivars are still produced on a large scale, but many have been preserved by home gardeners and farmers that sell directly to local markets. [88] This form of apple allergy also includes OAS, but often has more severe symptoms, such as vomiting, abdominal pain and urticaria, and can be life-threatening. Of the American crop, more than half is normally used as fresh fruit. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek, and European Christian tradition. Dwarf rootstocks became common by the 15th century and later went through several cycles of popularity and decline throughout the world. It is a global company that originated in California USA. [34], Further, Davidson points out the "strange" phrase "Apples of Hel" used in an 11th-century poem by the skald Thorbiorn Brúnarson. Apple continues to spend lots of money on high-profile ads like the "Switch" campaign, and it shows. These prohibit the use of synthetic pesticides, though some older pesticides are allowed. [29][30] Controlled atmosphere facilities are used to keep apples fresh year-round. The apple flower of most varieties requires cross-pollination for fertilization. Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock. It took all three apples and all of his speed, but Hippomenes was finally successful, winning the race and Atalanta's hand. Cultivars bred for raw consumption are termed dessert or table apples. Some cultivars, if left unpruned, grow very large—letting them bear more fruit, but making harvesting more difficult. See the fact file for more information apples or download our comprehensive worksheet pack. [27] The only apples native to North America are crab apples, which were once called "common apples". Several whole genome sequences has been made available, the first one in 2010 was based on the diploid cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’. [70] Other pests that affect apple trees include Codling moths and apple maggots. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [62], Apples are self-incompatible; they must cross-pollinate to develop fruit. Due to the genetic variability in Central Asia, this region is generally considered the center of origin for apples. Apples are harvested using three-point ladders that are designed to fit amongst the branches. The…. Varieties that ripen in late autumn may be stored for as long as one year, however. [3], A raw apple is 86% water and 14% carbohydrates, with negligible content of fat and protein (table). [36], Though the forbidden fruit of Eden in the Book of Genesis is not identified, popular Christian tradition has held that it was an apple that Eve coaxed Adam to share with her. There are four to seven pollination groups in apples, depending on climate: One cultivar can be pollinated by a compatible cultivar from the same group or close (A with A, or A with B, but not A with C or D).[64]. [75], Apples are sometimes used as an ingredient in savory foods, such as sausage and stuffing.[76]. She points out that buckets of apples were found in the Oseberg ship burial site in Norway, that fruit and nuts (Iðunn having been described as being transformed into a nut in Skáldskaparmál) have been found in the early graves of the Germanic peoples in England and elsewhere on the continent of Europe, which may have had a symbolic meaning, and that nuts are still a recognized symbol of fertility in southwest England. Its most important contributions have included 'Haralson' (which is the most widely cultivated apple in Minnesota), 'Wealthy', 'Honeygold', and 'Honeycrisp'. She states this may imply that the apple was thought of by Brúnarson as the food of the dead. Apples can also form bud sports (mutations on a single branch). Gala. A simple description of an apple tree would easily be a tall, sturdy tree that provides shade as well as a bounty of delicious fruit. Apple varieties, of which there are thousands, fall into three broad classes: (1) cider varieties; (2) cooking varieties; and (3) dessert varieties, which differ widely but tend to emphasize colour, size, aroma, smoothness, and perhaps crispness and tang. Each word below can often be found in front of the noun apples in the same sentence. Apples are an important ingredient in many desserts, such as apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [22], Chinese soft apples, such as M. asiatica and M. prunifolia, have been cultivated as dessert apples for more than 2000 years in China. The report illustrates the application of the major analytical strategic frameworks in business studies such as SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s Five Forces, Value Chain analysis, Ansoff Matrix and McKinsey 7S Model on Apple. [88], Breeding efforts have yet to produce a hypoallergenic fruit suitable for either of the two forms of apple allergy. They are often baked or stewed and are also (cooked) in some meat dishes. [51], The UK's national fruit collection database contains much information on the characteristics and origin of many apples, including alternative names for what is essentially the same "genetic" apple cultivar. It may take several hours before the poison takes effect, as cyanogenic glycosides must be hydrolyzed before the cyanide ion is released. The fruit matures in late summer or autumn, and cultivars exist in a wide range of sizes. Mariana. [dubious – discuss][66][verification needed] Some varieties of apples (e.g. Scions of desired varieties are commonly grafted onto hardy nursery seedlings of about 18 months of age; orchard planting follows one or two years later. About one-sixth is canned as pie stock and applesauce. [44], Renaissance painters may also have been influenced by the story of the golden apples in the Garden of Hesperides. The variety of apple, maturity and storage conditions can change the amount of allergen present in individual fruits. Freshly harvested, over-ripe fruits tend to have the highest levels of the protein that causes this reaction. The apple isn't just a fruit. One variety of apple might be sweet, another sour. [81] Browning reduces apple taste, color, and food value. All purpose apple, suitable for baking, eating raw, baking in pies or making applesauce. Some differ sufficiently from the parent tree to be considered new cultivars.[61]. [24] It is generally also hard to distinguish in the archeological record between foraged wild apples and apple plantations. [55] Triploid cultivars have an additional reproductive barrier in that 3 sets of chromosomes cannot be divided evenly during meiosis, yielding unequal segregation of the chromosomes (aneuploids). Malus species are native to the temperate zones of both hemispheres. He awarded the apple to Aphrodite, thus indirectly causing the Trojan War. When harvested, apples are usually roundish, 5–10 cm (2–4 inches) in diameter, and some shade of red, green, or yellow in colour; they vary in size, shape, and acidity depending on the variety. Season: Year Round. The apple flower of most varieties requires cross-pollination for fertilization. This crisp, aromatically-sweet apple features … The apple's many parts are helpful in a wide variety of cooking chores as well. The leaves are alternately arranged dark green-colored simple ovals with serrated margins and slightly downy undersides. If the video you're watching includes audio descriptions, you can find them in the Audio menu. Originally known as the iPhone OS, the name was changed with the introduction of the iPad. Apple, (Malus domestica), fruit of the domesticated tree Malus domestica (family Rosaceae), one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. Improved transportation of fresh apples by train and road replaced the necessity for storage. This is ultimately derived from Proto-Indo-European *ab(e)l-, but the precise original meaning and the relationship between both words[clarification needed] is uncertain. Significant exchange with Malus sylvestris, the crabapple, resulted in current populations of apples being more related to crabapples than to the more morphologically similar progenitor Malus sieversii. Paris of Troy was appointed to select the recipient. Corrections? Cultivars are sometimes classified by the day of peak bloom in the average 30-day blossom period, with pollenizers selected from cultivars within a 6-day overlap period. [80], The enzyme, polyphenol oxidase, causes browning in sliced or bruised apples, by catalyzing the oxidation of phenolic compounds to o-quinones, a browning factor. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The apple is one of the most grown tree fruits. [53] Extremely sweet apples with barely any acid flavor are popular in Asia,[53] especially the Indian Subcontinent. In strains without recent admixture the contribution of the latter predominates. Davidson also notes a further connection between fertility and apples in Norse mythology in chapter 2 of the Völsunga saga: when the major goddess Frigg sends King Rerir an apple after he prays to Odin for a child, Frigg's messenger (in the guise of a crow) drops the apple in his lap as he sits atop a mound. The East Malling Research Station conducted extensive research into rootstocks, and today their rootstocks are given an "M" prefix to designate their origin. 2 people chose this as the best definition of apple: Any of various plants bea... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. When cultivated, the size, shape and branch density are determined by rootstock selection and trimming method. Cider apples are typically too tart and astringent to eat fresh, but they give the beverage a rich flavor that dessert apples cannot. Apple juice is often concentrated and frozen. [22], Among the traits selected for by human growers are size, fruit acidity, color, firmness, and soluble sugar. Re-sequencing of multiple accessions has support this, while also suggesting extensive introgression from Malus sieversii following domestication. 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